Nyheter

DC -7 Introduced - History

DC -7 Introduced - History

Douglas Aircraft introducerade DC-7 den 18 maj 1953. DC-7 var ett derivat av DC-6. Den hade ett längre fueselage med nya och starkare motorer. Det fanns tre versioner av DC-7-byggda A-, B-, C-varianter. C-versionen var den första som utan svårighet kunde flyga non-stop över Atlanten.


Douglas DC-7C Seven Seas

Efter att Lockheed introducerade L1049G "Super G" Constellation för TWA behövde Pan American ett flygplan som kunde flyga non-stop transatlantiska tjänster, även västerut med genomsnittliga vindar (deras nuvarande DC-7B-tjänst krävde vanligtvis ett stopp). Douglas svarade med att sträcka flygkroppen med 42 tum och, ännu viktigare, att förlänga vingarna genom att sätta in en 5 fot förlängning vid varje vingrot. Detta gav nya DC-7C Seven Seas (i en smart ordlek på "7C") inte bara mer utrymme för bränsle, utan placerade motorerna längre ut på vingen, vilket minskade buller och vibrationer från de ganska högljudda Wright R-3350 radialerna . Mer kraftfulla motorer på 3400 hk vardera monterades på DC-7C, och alla dessa förbättringar sträckte räckvidden till 5635 miles, vilket möjliggjorde direkta rutter som aldrig tidigare var möjliga med Douglas-flygplan. Den första Seven Seas-tjänsten introducerades av Pan American den 1 juni 1956 och totalt levererades 121 DC-7C till flygbolagen. Den totalen gör den till den mest många i DC-7-serien.

DC-7C fortsatte med att flyga non-stop-rutter över USA, liksom på transatlantiska, transpacifika och till och med Great Circle-rutter över nordpolen. Lockheed tvingades spela ikapp till DC-7C och utvecklade slutligen L1649A Starliner, som ursprungligen var tänkt att vara en turboprop, men slutade med R-3350-talet och var något långsammare än Seven Seas, även om den hade större räckvidd . Det introducerades dock för sent för betydande order, och Lockheed förlorade mycket pengar på projektet. I tjänst var DC-7C inte lika tillförlitlig som DC-6-serien, och var den sista kolvmotorerna Douglas-flygplansmodellen som introducerades. När den sista KLM DC-7C levererades i december 1958 var Boeing 707 redan i drift, vilket markerade slutet på en era. Så snart jetplanen var på plats konverterade flygbolagen antingen DC-7C till fraktfartyg eller sålde dem till operatörer på andra nivå. De flesta DC-7C hade inte långa livslängder och nästan alla har skrotats. Fram till nyligen var det några få i brandbombservice, som dock visade nyttan av en design som startade under andra världskriget med DC-4 och kulminerade med de sju haven, ett plan som slutligen förde praktiskt taget alla platser på jordklotet inom räckhåll för världens flygbolag via en direkt routing.

R-3350 DC-7 stereoljud av hög kvalitet finns hos Jon Jefferys. Det här är det bästa jag har hört hittills. De är utformade för att användas med FS2004 långsam motorstart. Detta paket laddas ner separat baspaketen innehåller ett mycket mindre PropSound -paket. Senast uppdaterad 30/10/13. Uppdatering som minskar ljudet när motorerna stoppas. Senast uppdaterad 2013-11-11.

För att måla om den här modellen kan du använda Färgkit för GMAX DC-7. Innehåller lagrade PSD -filer (användbara i både Photoshop och Paint Shop Pro) som gör att du kan placera ditt färgschema mellan de nakna metallskikten och fönstren och dörrarna. Ger snabb målning! Obs! Det finns inga verkliga målarinstruktioner i filen, följ de detaljerade instruktionerna i min ommålningshandledning. Läs den medföljande textfilen för detaljer för varje DC-7-modell. Inkluderar nu att öppna dörrformer och godsdörrar för DC-7CF och DC-7F (20 MB). Beskrivning av DC-7CF interiörstrukturer här och här. Senast uppdaterad den 31/10/13.

Avgasflammor och startlågor/rökpaket från Wayne Tudor tillgängligt! (Ingår redan i baspaketen nedan.)

Klicka på bilden för att ladda ner planet.

FS2004 Pan American World Airways DC-7C Seven Seas Base Pack. ENDAST FS2004. Dave McQueen och jag har målat upp Greg Peppers och mina stora GMAX Seven Seas i det klassiska panamerikanska leveransschemat, med det bevingade världsemblemet på flygkroppen. Detta har nu också den nya VC och dörrar som kan öppnas. Naturligtvis har den också FSAviators stora flygdynamik! Inkluderar nu en icke-radarversion för TAI/Madair-leveranser. Den här var Clipper Blackhawk - tack igen! Kräver FS2004 United DC-7-baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast ändrad den 16/12/19.

FSX/P3D DC-7C baspaket. Jag har konverterat modellen till FSX -format för användning i FSX och P3D. Detta är ett komplett paket och behöver inte FS2004 -baspaketet ovan. Kräver FSX/P3D United DC-7 baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast uppdaterad den 21/10/2020.

FS2004/FSX Scandinavian Air System DC-7C Seven Seas. Medan SAS använde '7C på sina rutter till USA och Asien, är det verkliga anspråket att berömmelse var att inviga "över polen" -rutten från Köpenhamn till Tokyo och andra liknande rutter inklusive den ursprungliga polarrutten, Köpenhamn till Los Angeles. Detta plan, "Guttorm Viking" var det första som flyger denna mycket långa rutt. Detta är faktiskt ett paket med GMAX DC-7C med 4 SAS-leveranser, inklusive de från den tidigaste leveransen till den sista lasttransportören, alla målade av Jens B Kristensen. Tack! Använd endast texturerna - kräver Pan American DC -7C Baspaket ovan och United DC-7 Baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast ändrad den 16/7/03.

FS2004/FSX British Overseas Airways DC-7C Seven Seas. Nästa är BOAC, som inte hade för vana att köpa Douglas-flygplan (i själva verket kan dessa och några DC-3: s vara deras enda Douglas-plan!). När Britannia stötte på utvecklingsförseningar behövde BOAC ett plan för sina främsta transatlantiska rutter. Således köptes 10 DC-7C: er för att strömma dem och flög in till San Francisco från New York och anslöt till QANTAS Connies. Alla fick namnet "Seven Seas". Målad av Eric Joiner. Använd endast texturerna - kräver Pan American DC -7C Baspaket ovan och United DC-7 Baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast uppdaterad den 6/11/10. Version av Jens Christensen - tack! Senast ändrad den 7/7/04.

FS2004/FSX Pan American DC-7C Seven Seas. Wayne Tudor har målat GMAX DC-7C i senare amerikanska färger. DC-7C tillät flygbolaget att införa Great Circle-tjänst från London/Paris till Seattle 1957. Pan American använde DC-7C i internationell trafik tills jetplanen kom. Endast texturer - kräver Pan American DC -7C Baspaket ovan och United DC-7 Baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast uppdaterad 14/2/05. Tack!

FS2004/FSX Japan Air Lines DC-7C Seven Seas. Låt oss ta en paus från European Seven Seas för ett ögonblick och visa det enda asiatiska flygbolaget som köpte 7C, Japan Air Lines, målat av Wayne Tudor. Medan andra köpte Connies hade Japan alltid varit en Douglas-förespråkare, från DC-4-talet ända fram till DC-10-talet. Japan använde sina sju hav för långa sträckor över Stilla havet till San Francisco och Seattle. Det gjorde det möjligt för Japan att eliminera Wake Island -stoppet på SFO -körningen, vilket förkortade resan avsevärt. Ovanligt namngavs inte denna "City of San Francisco" (och andra DC-7C) efter en japansk stad eller funktion. Endast texturer - kräver Pan American DC -7C Baspaket ovan och United DC-7 Baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast uppdaterad 14/2/05.

FS2004/FSX Mexicana DC-7C Seven Seas. Här är DC-7C som Wayne Tudor har målat in i de panamerikanskt inspirerade färgerna i Mexicana, som flög dem på deras internationella rutter inklusive service från Mexico City till USA. Njut av! Endast texturer - kräver Pan American DC -7C Baspaket ovan och United DC-7 Baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast uppdaterad den 22/03/05.

FS2004/FSX Douglas Aircraft DC-7C Seven Seas. Dave McQueen har målat upp Greg's och min DC-7C i de mycket intressanta husfärgerna på DAC. Detta var planet som visade DC-7C: s utmärkta räckvidd och rimliga ekonomi. Det kvalificerar för inkludering eftersom det byggdes och målades här i Santa Monica, Kalifornien. Tack! Använd endast texturerna - kräver Pan American DC -7C Baspaket ovan och United DC-7 Baspaket för panel och ljud. Senast uppdaterad 13/4/06.


Serier: Serietidningar

Föregångaren till serietidningar, tecknade serier har varit populära i England och Amerika sedan början av 1800 -talet, med ursprung som satiriska och politiska tecknade serier tryckta i tidningar och tidskrifter. Den mest inflytelserika tecknaren av denna period, Thomas Nast spelade en stor roll för att få ner & ldquoBoss & rdquo Tweed & rsquos korrupta politiska maskin på 1870 -talets New York genom en serie tecknade serier som var mycket kritiska mot Tweed. Genom en naturlig utveckling utvecklades tecknade serier till serietidningar, först genom publikationer som innehåller sammanställningar av tecknade omtryck, sedan som böcker med original tecknade konstverk, innan de nådde kritisk massa genom skapandet av superhjältar 1938.

Platinum Age

Publicerad 1897, The Yellow Kid in McFadden & rsquos Flats anses vara den första serietidningen, i den mån den bar frasen & ldquocomic book & rdquo på baksidan. Långt ifrån dagens glansiga serietidningar i fullfärg, innehöll den här boken svartvita upptryck av populära tidningsserier. Efterföljande serier samlingsböcker inkluderade upptryck av Katzenjammer Kids, Happy Hooligan, Buster Brown, och Mutt & amp; Jeff.

Den första månatliga serietidningen, träffande titeln Serier varje månad, började publiceras 1922, även om det också innehöll upptryck av dagstidningsserier. År 1933, Funnies On Parade blev den första färgserien tryckt i den nu standardstorleken 6 5/8 x 10 1/4 tum.

I februari 1935 publicerade DC Comics & rsquo -föregångare, National Allied Publications Nytt kul #1 & mdashthe company & rsquos första serietidning och den första serietidningen någonsin bestående av helt originalmaterial. Jerry Siegel och Joe Shuster, snart känd för att skapa Superman, började arbeta med Nytt kul i oktober 1935. I mars 1937 års upplaga av Detective Comics #1, Siegel och Shuster introducerade sin karaktär Slam Bradley, förfader till Superman.

The Golden Age of Comic Books började i juni 1938 med debut av Superman i Action -serier #1. Batman hade premiär mindre än ett år senare Detective Comics #27.

I oktober 1939 släpptes Marvel Comics & rsquo -föregångaren, Timely Publications Marvel Comics #1 som inkluderade Human Torch, Angel och Prince Namor the Sub-Mariner. Tillsammans med Fawcett Comics & rsquo superhero Captain Marvel debuterade DC Comics & rsquo Flash och Green Lantern 1940. Marvel & rsquos Captain America och DC & rsquos Wonder Woman publicerades första året året efter.

Perioden från 1938 till mitten av 1940-talet representerar toppen av serietidningens popularitet. Medan den nuvarande månatliga försäljningen av populära serietitlar svävar runt 100 000 exemplar, såldes i början av 1940 -talet titlarna Superman, Batman och Captain Marvel regelbundet i intervallet 1,5 miljoner exemplar per månad.

Under återgången till det normala i efterkrigstidens Amerika rasade försäljningen av superhjältarserier och många titlar upphörde att publiceras. Genom mitten av 1950-talet fylldes tomrummet av serietidningar med mer allvarliga teman som kriminalitet, romantik, västerländsk och skräck. Men under denna period behöll serietidningar baserade på Superman-, Batman- och Wonder Woman -karaktärerna en blygsam publik.

År 1954 skrev psykiateren Fredric Wertham i sin bästsäljande bok Förförelse av de oskyldiga att serietidningar av alla slag förstörde amerikanska ungdomar. Wertham påstod att Superman representerade fascistiska ideal, Batman och Robin främjade en homosexuell livsstil och Wonder Woman var en lesbisk med en bindningsfixering. Kongressmedlemmar var så oroliga att de ringde Wertham för att vittna inför senatens underkommitté för ungdomsbrottslighet.

Samma år som serieförlagare kände till allmän motreaktion skapade Comics Code Authority för att självreglera sin bransch, ungefär som Motion Picture Association of America bildades för att förhindra statligt engagemang i filmproduktion. Koden ställde ett antal krav för serietidningar:

& ldquo I varje fall ska det goda segra över det onda & hellip & rdquo

& ldquoOm brott avbildas ska det vara som en elak och obehaglig aktivitet. & rdquo

& ldquoKvinnor ska ritas realistiskt utan att överdriva några fysiska egenskaper. & rdquo

& ldquo & hellipvampyrer och vampyrism, ghouls, kannibalism och varulvism är förbjudna. & rdquo

Efter att ha avbrutit många skräck-, kriminalitets- och romantiska titlar som bröt mot koden började serieföretagen publicera serietidningar med superhjältar från guldåldern. De renoverade befintliga superhjältar och skapade nya superhjältekaraktärer. Flashens återkomst, om än en uppdaterad version av Flash, i Monter #4 (oktober 1956) markerar början på silveråldern, när superhjälte -serietidningar fick en förnyad kommersiell framgång.

I slutet av 1950 -talet till 1960 -talet såg en förändring från mörka och övernaturliga serieteman till den andra änden av spektrumet med böcker som innehöll dumma handlingar och en hög grad av läger. Sådana tomter involverade Superbaby och & ldquo The Super-Monkey från Krypton & rdquo in Super pojke #76 (oktober 1959) och Batman och Robin samarbetar med komikern Jerry Lewis för att slåss mot Jokern Jerry Lewis #97 (december 1966).

Bådar upprörelsen av Läderlappen tv-serier i mitten av 1960-talet introducerade Batman-serietidningar löjliga karaktärer som Batbaby, Bat-Ape, Bat-Mite och Ace the Bat Hound. Under denna tid, som tog platsen för allvarliga skurkar för att slåss mot Superman, togs många former av kryptonit fram & mdashgold, blå, juvel, rödgrön, Magno, rödguldkryptonit och Kryptonite Plus.

Bronsåldern signalerade en mer realistisk stil inom serietidningar som en yngre generation konstnärer, inklusive Neal Adams, John Byrne, George Perez, Frank Miller, och andra, ersatte åldrande konstnärer som hade hjälpt till att skapa superhjältens serietidningar på 1930- och 1940 -talen.

Början av bronsåldern för serietidningar markeras av det chockerande mordet på Peter Parker & rsquos flickvän Gwen Stacy i händerna på Green Goblin i Fantastiska Spindelmannen #121-122 (juni-juli 1973). I en genre där hjältar åberopas för att övervinna nästan alla utmaningar, var det revolutionerande att illustrera det brutala mordet på en oskyldig karaktär vid sidan av den ultimata misslyckandet hos hennes förväntade frälsare.

År 1971 avslappnade Comics Code Authority vissa standarder och gick så långt som att säga & ldquoVampyrer, ghouls och varulvar får användas när de hanteras i den klassiska traditionen & hellip & rdquo

Denna mildare attityd möjliggjorde återkomst av skräck -komiska genren, inklusive titlar som t.ex. Draculas grav 1972 och Spökryttare och Tales of the Zombie 1973. Ytterligare övernaturliga karaktärer Man-Bat, Swamp Thing och Blade introducerades i början av 1970-talet.

Dessutom blev socialt medvetna berättelser fler på 1970 -talet, mest känt under Green Lantern och Green Arows samarbetsäventyr när de kämpade mot rasism, föroreningar och social orättvisa. Green Arrow konfronterade också hans sidekick Speedy & rsquos heroinberoende medan Iron Man kom överens med sin alkoholism.

Förstår att en stor majoritet av deras superhjältar var kaukasiska män, DC och Marvel introducerade en massa minoritets superhjältar som Storm, Black Lightning, Blade och Green Lantern John Stewart.

Kick off the Dark Age of comic books var publiceringen av den monumentala serien Kris på oändliga jordar. För att fira DC Comics & rsquo 50 -årsjubileum publicerade DC Kris på oändliga jordar som en 12-nummer serietidningsevenemang. I den här serien planerade DC att rensa upp årtionden av tomt inkonsekvenser, samt sammanföra motstridiga karaktärer från guldåldern och silveråldern. Tanken var att få flera alternativa verkligheter sammanförda för att skapa en konsekvent verklighet, som i att förena hur Green Lantern Alan Scott från 1940 -talet kan existera i samma verklighet som Green Lantern Hal Jordan på 1960 -talet. För det andra kan Justice Society på 1940 -talet (med deras Green Lantern) existera samtidigt som Justice League på 1960 -talet (med en annan Green Lantern). För att lösa några av inkonsekvenserna dödades vissa huvudkaraktärer och karaktärer som var långt borta spelades tillbaka med nya berättelser. I sista hand Kris på oändliga jordar var en stor framgång för DC Comics.

Från mitten av 1980-talet till början av 1990-talet var anti-hjältar populära. Mörka, pessimistiska berättelser regerade, som i Alan Moore & rsquos Vaktmän, där en värld ser ned på en gång mäktiga superhjältar eller i Frank Miller & rsquos Batman: The Dark Knight Returns där en 55-årig Batman har gått i pension från brottsbekämpning och lämnat kriminella för att terrorisera Gotham City. Läsarna bevittnade Superman dö, Batman blev kritiskt skadad och Green Lantern Hal Jordan slaktade sina andra Green Lanterns.

The Dark Age publicerade också Pulitzer-prisvinnande Maus, Art Spiegelman& rsquos rörande, självbiografisk berättelse om en judisk familj i Polen som levde under Nazitysklands regeringstid.

Denna period slutar med en massiv försäljningsnedgång och minskning av industrin orsakad av en spekulant & rsquos -marknad där överflödiga varor, för många samlar- och rsquos -utgåvor och för många serier producerades på en uppblåst marknad. Försäljningsnedgången bidrog till Marvel Comics konkurs 1996.

1996-nutid

Publiceringen av Alex Ross& rsquos Kingdom Come 1996, som återhämtade sig till optimismen och styrkan i silverålders superhjältar, markerar början på den moderna tiden. Under denna period försökte serieförlag att rätta till sina misstag genom att skapa en smalare affärsplan och lägga mer arbete på ett färre antal projekt. Efter filmens dystra misslyckande Batman och Robin (1997) lades superhjältefilmer på is för återanpassning. År 2000, den blygsamma framgången av X-Men hjälpte till att sätta tillbaka superhjältefilmens popularitet.

Över åttio år sedan Supermans debut har serietidningsindustrin förblivit relevant genom att tidigt anta digitala serier, framgångsrik mättnad på film- och tv-marknaderna och bibehålla en stark koppling till deras fan-bas.

Jesse Kowalski, Curator of Exhibitions, Norman Rockwell Museum


Bronsåldern

1969 går Dick Grayson på college som en del av DC Comics försök att revidera Batman -serierna. Dessutom flyttar Batman också från Wayne Manor till en takvåning ovanpå Wayne Foundation -byggnaden i centrala Gotham City, för att vara närmare Gotham Citys brott. Batman tillbringar 1970-talet och början av 1980-talet främst med att arbeta solo, med enstaka team-ups med Robin och/eller Batgirl. Batmans äventyr blir också något mörkare och mer dyster under denna period, som visar alltmer våldsamma brott, inklusive det första uppträdandet (sedan den tidiga guldåldern) av en vansinnig, mordisk Joker och ankomsten av Ra's Al Ghul. På 1980 -talet blir Dick Grayson Nightwing.

I det sista numret av Brave and the Bold 1983 slutar Batman i Justice League och bildar en ny grupp som heter Outsiders. Han fungerar som lagets ledare tills Batman and the Outsiders #32 (1986) och komiken sedan ändrade titel.

1970 -talet

  • Januari: Under ledning av författaren Dennis O'Neil och konstnären Neal Adams går de läckra hi-jinksna från de senaste två decennierna till Batman-berättelser i pension. I stället kommer en mer aktuell ton och stämning till serien. (DETECTIVE COMICS #395)
  • Juni: Zoologen Kirk Langstrom förvandlas till Man-Bat, till skräck för sin fästmö Francine Lee. Under tiden samarbetar Robin och Batgirl för första gången. (DETECTIVE COMICS #400)
  • November: Efter debut på sidorna i Konstiga äventyr #215, The League of Assassins visas först i en Batman -titel. (DETECTIVE COMICS #405)
  • Januari: I "Marriage: Impossible" blir Kirk Langstroms brud Francine Lee Langstrom She-Bat. (DETECTIVE COMICS #407)
  • Maj: Talia al Ghul gör sitt första framträdande före debuten av sin djävulska pappa, Ra's al Ghul. (DETECTIVE COMICS #411)
  • Juni: Ra's al Ghul debuterar. (BATMAN #232)
  • Augusti: Efter 17 år återvänder Two-Face till Batmans skurkgalleri. (BATMAN #234)
  • Augusti: På omslaget till hans 400: e uppträdande i Detective Comics, Batman håller en pistol mot sitt tempel, efter att ha skrivit en självmordsbrev till Robin, Batgirl och Superman. (DETECTIVE COMICS #426)
  • Oktober – november: Batman går samman med Manhunter Paul Kirk för första gången när Kirk offrar sitt liv för att förstöra den onda kabalen som kallas Council. (DETECTIVE COMICS #443)
  • April – maj: Debuten av Richard Dragon: Kung-Fu Fighter har titelkaraktären och Ben Turner (a.k.a Bronze Tiger), kampsporter som kommer att korsa vägar med Batman -familjen.
  • Maj: Jokern dyker upp i sin egen månatliga serie av olyckor, som bara varar nio nummer (JOKERN #1)
  • September oktober: Familjen Batman, en serie som belyser gjutet av Batman -karaktärer, debuterar (varar i 20 nummer innan den avbröts 1978). (BATMANFAMILJEN #1)
  • December 1975-januari: Man-Bat flyger solo i sin egen månadsserie, som bara varar i två nummer. (MAN-BAT #1)
  • Januari: Lady Shiva, både vän och fiende till Batman -familjen under senare år, introduceras. (RICHARD DRAGON: KUNG-FU FIGHTER #5)
  • Februari – mars: Kultledaren Kobra, som snart kommer att vara en frekvent Batman -fiende, dyker upp i sin egen serie. (KOBRA #1)
  • Mars: Dr Leslie Thompkins, en vänlig vuxen som blir vän med en ung Bruce Wayne, debuterar i "There Is No Hope In Crime Alley". (DETECTIVE COMICS #457)
  • Juni: Piratskurkens kapten Stingaree dyker upp först. (DETECTIVE COMICS #460)
  • September: Batman kämpar mot Black Spider för första gången. (DETECTIVE COMICS #463)
  • Maj: Dr Phosphorus debuterar. (DETECTIVE COMICS #469)
  • Juni: Platinumblond bombshell Silver St. Cloud presenteras som Bruce Waynes senaste kortlivade kärleksintresse. (DETECTIVE COMICS #470)
  • April – maj: Rebecca "Becky" Langstrom, dotter till Kirk och Francine Langstrom, föds. (BATMANFAMILJEN #17)
  • Juli – augusti: akromegalisk Preston Payne blir Clayface III. (DETECTIVE COMICS #478)
  • Januari: Lucius Fox presenteras som finansguiden som vägleder Wayne Enterprises dagliga affärsverksamhet i Bruce Waynes frånvaro. (BATMAN #307)
  • April – maj: I 40 -årsdagen av Detective Comics, visas gangstern Maxie Zeus först. (DETECTIVE COMICS #483)
  • Augusti – september: Kathy Kane mördas av bronstigern. (DETECTIVE COMICS #485)
  • Oktober: Den pyromaniska Firebug gör sin debut. (BATMAN #318)

1980 -talet

  • Juli: "Untold Legends of the Batman", den första Batman-miniserien, har premiär.
  • Augusti: Arkham Asylum introduceras. (BATMAN #326)
  • September: Brottsläkaren föreskriver död för Batman. (DETECTIVE COMICS #494)
  • Oktober: I en förhandsvisning berättar Robin om tidigare Teen Titans Wonder Girl och Kid Flash, liksom nya medlemmar Changeling, Raven, Cyborg och Starfire för att bilda The New Teen Titans. (DC COMICS PRESENTERAR #26)
  • December: Batman träffar första gången med den mäktiga mobbebossen som bara är känd som The Squid. (DETECTIVE COMICS #497)
  • Januari: Electrocutioner debuterar. (BATMAN #331)
  • Mars: I 500: e numret av Detective Comics (i en berättelse med titeln "To Kill a Legend") besöker Batman och Robin en alternativ verklighet där de förhindrar morden på Thomas och Martha Wayne.
  • Februari: Den illusoriska skurken Mirage debuterar. (DETECTIVE COMICS #511)
  • Mars: Dr Death återvänder i 45 -årsdagen av Detective Comics. (DETECTIVE COMICS #512)
  • Oktober: Batman kämpar mot överste Blimp. (BATMAN #352)
  • Mars: Både den unga cirkusakrobaten Jason Todd och reptilskurken Killer Croc gör sina första framträdanden. (BATMAN #357)
  • Maj: Batman firar sitt 500: e uppträdande i Detective Comics. Under tiden leder morden på Jason Todds cirkusflygföräldrar (speglar Dick Grayons eget ursprung) av Killer Croc till att Jason ärver rollen som Robin från Dick. (DETECTIVE COMICS #526)
  • Juli: Polisdetektiven Harvey Bullock i Gotham gör sin debut. (BATMAN #361)
  • Augusti: Efter att Batman slutat i Justice League of America samlar han sitt eget lag med superhjältar som heter The Outsiders. (BATMAN OCH UTANFÖRANDE #1)
    • Syskonen Anton och Natalia Knight (alias Night-Slayer och Nocturna) debuterar. (DETECTIVE COMICS #529)
    • December: Jason Todd gör sin officiella debut som Robin. (BATMAN #366)
    • Februari: Dick Grayson slutar i rollen som Robin. (THE NEW TEEN TITANS #39)
    • Juli: Dick Grayson tar på sig Nightwing för att rädda sina medtitaner från Deathstroke the Terminator och The HIVE. (TALES OF THE TEEN TITANS #4)
    • April: DC Comics 12-nummer långa serie "Crisis on Infinite Earths" börjar. I processen förändras Batmans historik radikalt. Som ett resultat glöms Bat-Mite, Ace the Bat-Hound och andra Batman-relaterade karaktärer bort i den nya mainstream-kontinuiteten. Samtidigt revideras Jason Todds ursprungshistoria.
    • Augusti: Kriminalherren Roman Sionis, annars känd som Black Mask, visas först. (BATMAN #386)

    DC -service var beroende av tjocka kopparkabelar. Kopparpriserna steg vid den tiden, så DC -tjänsten var begränsad av att inte kunna leverera kunder som bodde bortom några miles av en DC -generator. Thomas Edison reagerade på tävlingen och utsikterna att förlora mot AC -tjänsten genom att starta en smutskampanj mot Westinghouse och hävdade att AC -tekniken var osäker att använda. År 1887 höll Edison en offentlig demonstration i West Orange, New Jersey, som stödde hans anklagelser genom att sätta upp en 1 000 volt Westinghouse AC -generator som fäster den på en metallplatta och avrättar ett dussin djur genom att placera de stackars varelserna på den elektrifierade metallplattan. Pressen hade en fältdag som beskriver den fruktansvärda händelsen och den nya termen "elektrocution" användes för att beskriva död genom elektricitet.

    Den 4 juni 1888 antog New York -lagstiftningen en lag som fastställde elstötning som statens nya officiella utförningsmetod, men eftersom två potentiella konstruktioner (AC och DC) av elstolen fanns, överlämnades det till en kommitté att besluta vilken form att välja. Edison kampanjade aktivt för valet av Westinghouse -stolen i hopp om att konsumenterna inte skulle vilja ha samma typ av elservice i sina hem som användes för utförande.

    Senare 1888 anlitade forskningsanläggningen i Edison uppfinnaren Harold Brown. Brown hade nyligen skrivit ett brev till New York Post som beskriver en dödlig olycka där en ung pojke dog efter att ha rört en exponerad telegrafledning som gick på växelström. Brown och hans biträdande läkare Fred Peterson började designa en elektrisk stol för Edison, experimenterade offentligt med likspänning för att visa att de lämnade de stackars labbdjuren torterade men inte döda och testade sedan växelspänning för att visa hur AC dödade snabbt.

    Doktor Peterson var chef för regeringskommittén som valde den bästa designen för en elektrisk stol, medan han fortfarande var på lönen för Edison Company. Det var inte förvånande när kommittén meddelade att elstolen med växelspänning valdes för det statliga fängelsessystemet.


    Flygbolagsklassens och stugornas historia

    Dubbeldäckare, separata stugor, till och med separata lyxsviter. Nej, det här är inte en ny A380. Detta är en Boeing 314 Flying Boat från slutet av 1930 -talet.

    Livet var en gång enklare. Det fanns bara en klass för passagerare på flyg. Inledningsvis var det en mycket ‘äventyrlig ’ klass – öppna cockpits och höga dödsfall.

    Det utvecklades sedan till att bli jämförelsevis lyxigt och löjligt dyrt, till och med sträcka sig till sovvagnar och#8211 tänkt på som en modern introduktion men faktiskt tillbaka till de flygande båtarna i slutet av 1930 -talet. Men sedan, i början av 1960 -talet, ringdes första klass tillbaka när det gäller de lyxfunktioner som erbjuds, även om det nyligen förbättras selektivt igen.

    Vårt förslag är att dagens business class funktionellt motsvarar gårdagens första klass och att dagens bättre typer av premiumekonomi motsvarar tidigare företagsklassprodukter. Tyvärr finns det ingen matchande förbättring i tränarklassen, vilket med vissa mått är sämre än någonsin.

    Låt oss följa utvecklingen av flygsäten och tjänster innan vi identifierar var sötplatsen för många av oss nu kan hittas.

    De ursprungliga flygbolagen handlade om flygpost, inte människor. Oh – Varney Airlines? Du vet det bättre med sitt moderna namn. United Airlines.

    Passagerare var ett flygbolag eftertanke

    Vi tänker naturligtvis på att flygbolagen handlar om sina passagerare, eller kanske tycker vi att de borde vara det. Utan passagerare finns det inga flygbolag, eller hur? Tja, faktiskt, fel!

    Även om passagerarintäkterna idag utgör mer än 90% av de flesta flygbolagens inkomster, skapades de tidiga flygbolagen främst för att flyga amerikansk post runt om i landet. Passagerare (och annan frakt) var en eftertanke, och alla pengar och vinstpotentialer kretsade kring post.

    Under första hälften av 1920 -talet drevs det största flygbolaget i världen av US Postal Service. Postföring privatiserades gradvis under andra hälften av 1920 -talet, och flygbolagen kunde tjäna mycket mer pengar genom att transportera post än passagerare. Tidiga plan hade också begränsad kapacitet – ett tidigt plan kunde bära antingen 100 kg post eller en enda (lätt) passagerare, och som ett resultat var passagerare oviktiga och irrelevanta.

    Ibland var statliga subventioner för att bära posten så stora att flygbolagen skulle skicka post till sig själva för att öka sina intäkter. Ett flygbolag kan betala 9c för att posta ett brev och sedan få 18c av regeringen att flyga brevet från en flygplats till en annan.

    Här är en intressant historia av utvecklingen av flygbolag som jag skrev 2010, fokuserade främst på utvecklingen av de regulatoriska strukturer som har ålagts flygbolag, men berör dessa ämnen.

    Den här restaurerade bilden dateras till 1931 och visar en Handley -sida H.P.42 som tankas i Israel.

    Större och bättre plan uppmuntrar också passagerare

    När flygplanets storlek och kapacitet växte började flygbolagen inse att de skulle ha svårt att fylla alla flygningar de ville operera med post ensam. Så det blev en långsam fokusförskjutning mot passagerare. När flygplan utvecklades och flygresor skiftade från att vara i en öppen cockpit med läderrock och skyddsglasögon till att vara i en inre kabin, blev konceptet att resa med flyg något av potentiellt större överklagande, och flygbolagen agerade för att göra flygresor mer bekväma och snällare.

    Denna utveckling skedde inom en tioårsperiod. Man kan föreslå att det började med den inneslutna hytten på Ford Trimotor 1928 – det hade funnits tidigare plan med slutna kabiner, men metalltrimotorn markerade en stor förändring av flygbolag och passagerares förväntningar på de flygplan de flög (och några förblev i kommersiell tjänst till 1960 -talet).

    Andra lyxer inkluderade den första flygplatstoaletten (olika krediterad på Handley -sidan H.P.42, som först flög 1930, eller den lite tidigare Handley -sidan W.8). Före den tiden gjorde kortare flygningar toaletter lite lyxbehövlig. Vi skriver mycket detaljerat om flygtoalettrelaterade frågor här och här.

    Not quite such a luxury, leastways not in its early incarnations, was airline food. This was introduced very early on, with London-Paris flights operated by Handley Page Transport in 1919 generally being thought to be the first example of on-board food. This was, at the time, about a 2.5 hour flight (210 miles) on a plane that carried 5 – 10 passengers.

    Another step forward was the introduction of flight attendants. The first airline to feature a flight attendant was United Airlines, in 1930.

    A big boost in passenger comforts was offered by the first pressurized cabin, offered on the Boeing 307, in 1938. Until then passenger planes needed to cruise appreciably below 15,000 ft, meaning that rather than flying above the weather, they would fly through it. Pressurized cabins, in conjunction with supercharged engines and subsequently jets, allowed planes to fly much higher (and also faster and more economically with less air friction), giving improved travel experiences.

    These technological improvements allowed the airlines to compete not just on speed but also on amenities and comfort with trains and passenger liners. There was a steady improvement in passenger experience, in a single class of service, although at the time it was not considered first class, it was just normal class.

    Although often very utilitarian – sometimes with a cabin split on one side for freight and the other side for passengers, the DC-3 could also be luxurious, as in this late 1930s image.

    The First Airline/Passenger Revolution

    A silent revolution occurred in the mid 1930s, and emerged in full force after World War 2.

    1936 saw the introduction of the extraordinary Douglas DC-3, an airplane still to be found operating in commercial service in some parts of the world today. There were many revolutionary features of this plane – longer range, faster speed, greater comfort, larger passenger capacity, and extraordinary robustness – but the hidden/obscured revolution brought about by this plane is that it was the first plane that could be commercially and profitably operated with only passengers, no freight or mail.

    This was indeed a revolution. Passengers had shifted from an unnecessary irrelevance, to a less profitable addition to a flight, to now being center stage and an essential element of any airline’s future plans for growth and profit.

    The second part of the DC-3 revolution happened after WW2. The plane had been built in comparatively enormous numbers by the measures of the age, during its production run from 1936-1942 – 607 of them were built, each costing what would be, in today’s money, about $1.4 million.

    But during the war, the military built more than 10,000 of the equivalent C-47 transport plane, and after the war, started selling them off very inexpensively, allowing new airlines to spring up and existing airlines to add many more planes to their fleets at low cost, converting the C-47s into passenger planes.

    As a result, air travel grew enormously, and started to be limited not so much by the number of planes, but by the number of passengers available. The airlines needed to grow their market, by reducing the cost of air travel.

    First class on a TWA Super Constellation, in the late 1950s.

    Expanding the Market for Air Travel

    The airlines expanded their markets by offering lower fares for less convenient routes with more stops along the way – these would be routes primarily operated for the mail contracts, but by planes with available space for passengers, although the routes or the schedules did not attract many passengers. So, for example, you could fly between two moderately far apart cities on a nonstop flight for a higher fare, or on a less convenient schedule and with one or two stops on the way for a lower fare – a revolutionary idea in its time, and one which has survived all the way through to the present day.

    Eventually this concept evolved further so that passengers who were paying less were provided with a lower standard of seating and service. Which came first – lower fares or poorer quality seating and service? Hard to say!

    This new service standard came to have its own name – ‘coach class’. The term may have evolved from one of two origins. Possibly it referred to the different types of train service – ‘coach class’ which was just plain seating in a ‘coach’ carriage, as compared to saloon or first or sleeper or Pullman class, which had lounges and private cabins. Or perhaps it dated even further back, to the concept of stage coaches which would make lots of stops on their route. You wanted the nonstop flight, you flew first class, you wanted the cheaper flight, you took the multi-stop coach class flight.

    Adding another level of fare was not as simple as it sounds. Within the US, the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), constituted in 1940 (evolving out of the earlier Bureau of Air Commerce that had been created in 1935), had to approve all fares and sought to establish standard fares on routes that all airlines were required to adhere to. And internationally, there were treaty restrictions limiting what fares airlines could charge, often requiring formal government approval by the governments of both countries for new fares. Even if this wasn’t needed, the airlines had their own pricing cartel, the International Air Transport Association (IATA), that acted ostensibly to ensure airlines all provided a consistent high standard of service and safety, and in reality, was primarily an anti-competitive club of airlines who acted in concert to ensure that none of their number would suddenly ‘break the rules’ and start selling tickets for less than the rest of them.

    IATA finally acknowledged the potential for multi-class travel and allowed transatlantic tourist fares in summer of 1952 – a New York to London flight, one way, then cost either $395 in standard class or $270 in tourist class. This innovation – something we take for granted now – quickly spread around the world.

    Domestically, while coach class fares were spreading, the airlines used the same seating on the planes for coach and first class until 1955 when TWA introduced two-cabin configurations on its Super Constellations. The images on this web page not only evoke a wave of nostalgia for the imagined ‘golden age’ of airline travel, but also clearly show the very different type of accommodation offered to coach and first class passengers in the mid 1950s.

    No matter how much this Lufthansa staged publicity shot tried to pretend otherwise, the 707 changed first class to just plain rows of seats all facing forward. No more lounges, sofas, beds.

    The Second Air Travel Revolution

    Air travel was becoming broadly accepted as a sensible and convenient way to travel for both moderate and long distances, but it remained expensive. Internationally, ocean liners, taking almost as many days as planes would take hours, were still the major carrier of travelers, and domestically, trains, buses, and private cars carried many people, even on longer journeys.

    But after the many advances in aviation that came out of WW2, and during the 1950s, air travel became steadily more affordable, and started to not only skim the ‘top’ off the market, but also to displace and replace other forms of longer distance travel (ie 300+ mile journeys). Passenger trains and ocean liners started suffering from terminal declines in passenger numbers, while planes became more and more essential.

    The first passenger jets appeared in 1953, and the last ocean liners were launched, probably already after the demise of the industry they were being built to serve, in 1962 and 1963.

    The revolutionary rather than evolutionary change occurred at the end of the 1950s, with the appearance of the Boeing 707 and very similar DC-8. These planes carried about twice as many passengers, about 80% faster, and at lower overall cost per passenger mile flown, than the planes they were replacing. The huge increase in passenger carrying capacity was expanded further by the sales success of the new jet planes (four times as many 707s were sold as Super Constellations) and air travel finally started becoming something that the middle class could consider as well as the upper class.

    Most significantly, from the perspective of this article, they marked a transition from the former fanciful and extravagant first class accommodations on planes to a new utilitarian layout in both coach and first classes. Compare the images of the Super Constellation interiors, with facing seating, lounges, and beds, with a typical layout for any 707/DC-8 and similar plane – orderly rows of seats either side of a center aisle – two seats either side in first class, three seats either side in coach class.

    This marked the end of the brief ‘golden age’ of air travel, an era that was not revived for almost fifty years. The ‘jet age’ replaced the gorgeous ‘Connie’ and her predecessors with planes that now were primarily designed for the coach class passenger, and with less space and luxury for first class passengers, too. Soon, passengers in all classes would stop dressing up for a flight, and instead, start dressing down.

    At the same time, the deluxe alternative modes of travel were disappearing. The Queen Mary ceased operations in 1967, the Queen Elizabeth in 1968 and the SS United States in 1969. The steady demise of passenger rail traffic and the railroads offering such services saw the formation of Amtrak in 1970, an organization that has never been profitable at any point since then.

    This Pan Am publicity shot of one of their new 747 planes is interesting – if you count the seats, you’ll see that originally the 747 had only nine seats per row in coach class. Subsequently, the airlines squeezed in ten per row.

    Den tredje revolutionen

    The next revolution followed, a mere ten years later. The first part of this revolution was when the magnificent 747 lumbered into the skies for the first time in 1969 and entered commercial service the next year. This saw another doubling of passenger capacity per flight, and nearly all that growth in passengers was to be found in coach rather than first class.

    The second part of this revolution was the end of airfare regulation in the US, something that happened at the same time as the 747’s appearance.

    The airlines found themselves in a situation where they could handle more passengers than ever before, their costs were lower than ever before, and they were comparatively free to experiment with all sorts of new fare types and related service offerings. The earlier rigidity of the airline fare structure was abandoned, allowing airlines to have multiple different prices for their coach class fares, a concept that has carried forward from the 1970s through to the present day.

    The airlines also recognized that as well as structuring different fares for advance purchase and with or without restrictions on changes and cancellations, they could also charge more for ‘better’ coach class seats than for ‘worse’ ones – another concept that has seen a recent renaissance.

    Air travel quickly grew in volume. If the first revolution made air travel accessible to the upper class and the second revolution made it accessible to the middle class, the third revolution made it now open to everyone.

    The focus of the airlines shifted to match their new demographic targets. They switched from developing a first class product to developing a middle class product to now developing a very utilitarian product. The new concept was ‘we’ll make up in volume what we miss out in margin’.

    Traditional style business class seats.

    Bridging the Divide

    So, by the mid/late 1970s, there was an increasing gap between first class and coach class on planes and in their respective fares. First class fares had trended upwards, while coach class fares had trended downward. Whereas when the two classes first appeared, there was only a 50% or less extra cost to upgrade from coach to first class, by the late 1970s, and in some cases, there was as much as a ten fold difference in fare.

    One of the related benefits of the 747 was that there was enough room on the plane to experiment with new cabin configurations and layouts. Initially this had seen short lived experimentation with first class lounges and piano bars, similar in concept to the ‘golden age’ of travel in the 1930s and 1940s, but this did not last long. The airlines quickly decided there was more money to be made by adding another 20 or 30 coach class seats than in having open spaces for their small number of first class passengers.

    But with flight loadings usually below 70% or thereabouts, those extra seats were more often empty than full. There were clearly opportunities to add more premium services – things that were better (and more expensive) than coach class, but not quite reaching first class – a market that was more or less saturated and adequately catered for. The airlines reasoned that it would be better to swap 30 empty unsold coach class seats for 15 ‘better’ seats that could/would be sold. They were sacrificing nothing and gaining a whole new product.

    We are talking about the concept that became known as Business Class. El Al and British Airways were the first two airlines to announce plans for a new section of their planes (in 1977 and 1978) with this ‘mid grade’ class, but Qantas was the first to actually operate a plane with this third type of service/seating, in 1979.

    Most airlines followed suit and for a decade or two, the concept of three cabin planes (on international long distance routes) was broadly accepted.

    Another quiet change first started in 1979 – the dawn of frequent flier programs. Ostensibly to reward passengers for their business, they also provided new ways for airlines to identify their most valuable passengers, and to selectively reward such people. This had unexpected impacts in terms of seating styles and passenger behavior, which we discuss below.

    New (2016) style business class with lie-flat seats on Lufthansa

    Creating a New Divide

    In 1995 the first part of a new two part revolution occurred. British Airways introduced a ‘lie-flat’ first class ‘sleeper seat’. The earlier first class seats were wide and had plenty of recline on the seat back, and leg rests that extended out the front of the seat, but were basically nothing more than airline versions of Lazyboy lounge chairs. They were typically spaced on a 55″ – 60″ seat pitch.

    The new lie-flat seats required a broader seat pitch, around 75″ – 85″, so airlines couldn’t fit quite as many into the same space, but this was felt to be no huge loss. One of the possibly unexpected outcomes of the frequent flier programs was that increasingly, most people flying first class were flying on free frequent traveler tickets or had been given courtesy upgrades.

    The frequent flier programs created a structure whereby airlines knew who to select for courtesy upgrades, making the millions of articles about ‘how to get a free upgrade’ increasingly obsolete. Prior to then, it is true that if you dressed well and acted obsequiously, you had a chance of being selected for an upgrade, but the airlines became more and more sophisticated, and realized that the possibility of preferential upgrades to the premium cabins could be used as a carrot to encourage their more frequent fliers back onto their flights. Plus many people were proving to prefer to redeem the miles they earned for premium cabin travel rather than for coach cabin travel.

    So the first class cabin was still valuable, but reducing the number of seats by two or so didn’t mean much other than there being two fewer people getting free upgrades on each flight.

    This new lie-flat seating made for a very clear distinction between the three cabins. First class now might offer lie-flat sleeper seats, business class would have seats with reasonable seat pitch and seat width and good service/food and coach class would have narrow seats crammed tightly together. In the classic manner of ‘give your customers three choices’, this seemed perfect.

    But, airlines are never content with perfection, and often seek to destroy it. Strangely, the airlines then proceeded to introduce similar lie-flat seating in their business classes.

    While, from a traveler’s point of view, there’s little to complain about improvements to any class of seating on a flight (although I find lie-flat sleeper seats to often be appallingly uncomfortable, too narrow and too short – their promise is not matched by their reality), from an airline business point of view, an improved business class started to drain away some of the remaining ‘real’ passengers from first class – the ones who were actually buying tickets rather than enjoying upgrades and free mileage type tickets.

    Sure, if you weren’t paying for the ticket, you’d aspire to flying in first class. But if it was your money at issue, very few people felt the need to go all the way to the very front of the plane any more.

    The airlines responded inelegantly either by eliminating their first class cabins entirely, or by pushing the cost of business class travel up to a level much closer to first class. A trans-Atlantic flight might cost $1000 or less in coach class, but $5000-$7500 in business class and $7500-$9000 in first class.

    So, whether the airlines retained their first class cabin or not, there was an increasing divide again between coach class and the next class up from it. The airlines reacted by creating another class of travel, but a less clearly defined one.

    Virgin Premium Economy

    The Fourth – and now Fifth Class of Airline Travel

    The first airline to experiment with a class of travel that was designed to fall between regular coach class and business class was EVA Air, in 1991. They termed it Evergreen Class – a puzzling name that gave no indication of what it actually was. Not long after that, Virgin Atlantic Airways introduced their Premium Economy cabin, although this wasn’t really a fourth class of service for Virgin, because they had never offered first class. When major airlines that already had three classes started adding a premium economy type cabin as well – for example, British Airways and their ‘World Traveler Plus’, the concept of a fourth class of service became mainstream.

    Economy Plus has never been a clearly defined standard – there’s not even a universal name. Economy Plus? Premium Economy? Or maybe something entirely different. The vagueness in name was matched with a similar imprecision in terms of what specific features are better than coach class. Does it offer separate checkin lines? Early boarding? Are the seats wider or just more generously pitched? Is the food regular coach class food or is it better? Do you get extra frequent flier mile credits for flying premium economy? Do you have extra baggage allowances? Are there better in flight entertainment options?

    In some cases, with some airlines, some of these questions are answered yes and others no in other cases, with other airlines, there is a different set of inclusions and exclusions. Considerable pricing differences also exist.

    But, in general terms, a moderately ‘good’ premium economy class seat these days can be thought of as having perhaps a 38″ or thereabouts seat pitch, and an extra inch or two of seat width (18″ – 19″ wide), and some of the other features included too.

    Now – here’s the thing. What I’ve just described is very similar to the original types of business class seats, which were, as best I recall, 19″ or thereabouts wide and commonly with a 39″ seat pitch.

    Today’s premium economy seat is very similar to the early versions of business class.

    But wait – there’s more. The airlines are rediscovering one of their early strategies, abandoned decades ago, but now resurfacing. Charging extra for ‘better’ coach class seats – maybe nothing ‘better’ that simply being closer to the front of the plane, maybe with an extra inch or two of seat pitch, and probably not middle seats. Again with a very amorphous product concept and similarly imprecise name, but this type of ‘slightly better than normal coach but still coach’ class is also becoming more prevalent. Sometimes it is nothing more than simply an exit row seat, but on other occasions there are other inclusions as well.

    Not all airlines offer all five types of seating/service on their long haul flights, but many have four and most now have three.

    Facts and figures about the extraordinary two level three room ‘residences’ on Etihad

    A Sixth Class?

    Some airlines are now enhancing their first class product even further, by introducing a super-first class product, with miniature ‘suites’, half-high partitioning for privacy, on-board showers, and even ‘butlers’ rather than flight attendants.

    This seems unlikely to become commonplace on most airlines, probably being restricted to a few of the middle Eastern carriers, especially those operating the enormous A380 planes.

    Etihad has pursued this concept to perhaps its (il)logical conclusion with their extraordinary three room, two level ‘residences’ on their new A380 planes. Although very expensive, they are apparently proving very popular with high end passengers.

    At the opposite end of the scale, some airlines are now introducing a ‘worse than standard coach’ type class. They might offer coach class with or without any checked bag allowance, with or without any type of included food or drink, with or without advance seat selection, and with or without frequent flier credit. Is this another class of service, or merely just another way to sell the same thing a different way?

    An old style airline ticket and an ‘infamous’ revalidation sticker – many a trick has been played on airlines with them!

    Playing the Accounting Game

    Companies have simultaneously become more sophisticated in their ability to monitor and track employee travel spending, and also less generous in the travel budgets and policies they have in place.

    This was another factor in killing off first class. Companies told their employees ‘no more first class – you can travel in business class, but not first class’. Initially all a company could do to ensure compliance with that policy was to look at copies of tickets and see if they said ‘First class’ on them, and, at a slightly more sophisticated level, see what class of service the fare was booked in – P and F being common indicators for first class fares.

    So the airlines started playing games with the corporate cost managers. They came up with ‘free upgrades to first class’ that involved booking business class tickets, which allowed travelers to book an allowable business class fare and fly in the forbidden first class cabin ‘for no more money’. Some would also have ‘free upgrades to business class’ for business travelers only allowed to fly in coach class.

    Some airlines simply renamed their first class cabin as ‘business class’ or gave it a meaningless name like ‘Business First’ to try and be all things to all people – the accountants could pretend it was business class and the travelers could pretend it was first class (or possibly vice versa!).

    The not-so-good older days of airline travel – the in-cabin movie screen.

    All Cabins Improve in Some Respects

    While it is easy to criticize many aspects of modern day flying, and it is definitely true in coach class that the airlines put more seats in per row and more rows per cabin, there are also some remarkable improvements in the overall travel experience.

    These improvements are almost entirely to do with the in-flight entertainment. The first movie was shown on a plane as part of a sightseeing tour around Chicago in 1921, and the first movie on a regular passenger flight was in 1925. But these were oddities, in-flight movies only became commonplace in 1963 with the deployment of 16mm film movies and the invention of pneumatic sound driven earphones (the early ‘stethoscope type’ headphones if you remember them).

    In 1979 some airlines started to replace the pneumatic headphones with regular electrical headphones, initially in their premium cabins and slowly, subsequently, in coach class too. Delta was the last airline to still use pneumatic headphones, finally abandoning them in 2003.

    Some airlines now even offer noise cancelling headphones in premium cabins, but generally they are of very poor quality. An exception is Lufthansa that offers Bose noise cancelling headphones.

    In the mid 1980s, individual video players started appearing – initially in the form of video cassette players in premium cabins. You’d have a list of available video cassettes and request the ones you wanted to watch, and sometimes would have to wait for other passengers to finish watching the movie first. Some types of players were unreliable and loved to ‘chew up’ the video cassettes.

    Instead of one movie on central large video projectors that displayed the movie to the entire cabin (and some airlines – notably Aeroflot – would play the sound track over the public address system, whether you wished to watch/listen to the movie or not!) airlines started to offer half a dozen or more channels of video at individual seat players. But the movies all started at the same time, and if you wanted to watch a movie, you’d potentially have to wait two hours until it next restarted.

    Now of course, most airlines offer video on demand. We can choose the programs we want to watch, start them, pause them, and stop them as we wish, and might have anywhere from several dozen to several hundred or even a thousand different programs to choose from. Plus the video screens have massively improved too.

    The first seatback video screens measured a mere 2.7″ (on Northwest Airlines in 1988), and were low/standard definition. Today, even coach class screens are usually 7″ or larger, while business and first class screens can grow to 15″ or more, and usually all types of screens in all cabins are high definition.

    A related improvement has been in the field of at-seat power. Until relatively recently, there was no power to be had at seats. Then some airlines started introducing ‘universal’ power outlets – universal in the sense that you then had to buy an expensive power adapter that would allow you to operate your laptop from the seat power outlet. Whenever I tried to use those, the power my laptop required was invariably too much for the seat power circuit, and either the laptop would refuse to charge, or the power outlet’s circuit breaker would trip.

    More recently, real 110/220v power outlets started to appear in the premium cabins at seats, and now even in some coach class cabins, too. The new thing is to also provide USB power outlets, but in a manner reminiscent of the earlier ‘universal’ power outlets, most airline USB power outlets seem to be limited to the original and now inadequate 0.5A standard, which is too little to charge most tablets.

    And there has been an evolution in in-flight communications. Remember the Airphones mounted in the seatbacks in front of us? Fiendishly expensive per minute, but sometimes fun to use in the days before cell phones, to call to someone on the ground and impress them with where you were calling from.

    They were so expensive that no-one used them. But now their capability is being replaced by in-flight Wi-Fi and inflight phone service connectivity, and the initial limitations on in-flight Wi-Fi are being replaced by truly fast and flexible service.

    On the other hand, if you don’t want to work and do want to sleep, don’t go looking for a blanket or pillow in coach class any more. They no longer exist on most planes – to ‘save weight’, if you can believe it!

    Looking for all the world like business class of a couple of decades back, this is current day Premium Economy class on Cathay.

    The New Value Spot

    For many of us, coach class has become worse and worse – all the more so because while their seats have gotten smaller and smaller, we have done the opposite and become larger and larger.

    Business class, while often much less expensive in terms of multiples of the coach class fare than it once was, is still an enormous amount extra to pay, particularly if expressed in terms of ‘dollars per hour of travel’ (commonly an extra $100 or $200 or even more per hour flown). There’s almost nothing legal or illegal the airlines could offer to justify that type of expense.

    The extra thousands of dollars more that first class typically costs, compared to already over-priced business class, brings very little of value these days, particularly now that both classes offer lie-flat sleeper bed/seats. Sure, first class gives you an extra choice of two on the wine menu, and an extra course on the food menu, and maybe one or two more hot towels during the flight, and an extra inch or two on the movie monitor, and sometimes some extra perks prior to and after the flight – a slightly more ‘exclusive’ lounge prior to boarding, maybe limo transfers too.

    But most of us find such added features unnecessary rather than essential, and definitely not worth paying thousands of dollars more to enjoy. If we needed such things, we could buy many of them separately for much less money. Want a bigger screen monitor? Buy an iPad. Want a limo transfer? Pay $100 directly, not $1000 extra on the air fare. Want a vintage year champagne? Buy a dozen bottles at your destination and celebrate having still saved substantially over the effective cost for a glass or two on board. And so on.

    But premium economy has improved, and might be available for $25 – $50/hour, and while that is still an appreciable extra expense (a 10 hour trans-Atlantic flight might cost an extra $1000 roundtrip to upgrade to premium economy) the difference is something that most people can really feel and benefit from.

    Remember though that premium economy varies widely in cost and quality/features included. It pays to shop around. The second part of this article series will summarize the features of the major airlines’ premium economy products so you can better know where to focus your comparisons.


    5. Bring out your dead

    As mentioned previously, not only are "some" of the characters that lost their lives during Death Metal alive (does that include the Batman Who Laughs before Wonder Woman killed him? Hmmm?), but DC has left the door open to just about any character who was dead now being alive.

    "Not just those who fell in battle, but people who died innan recent events…"

    But the first such character returning from the dead (who died prior to Death Metal) is Roy Harper, who was killed by Wally West in Heroes in Crisis. Read more about that through the link.


    One final homecoming: Legacy of a Delta DC-7B culminates in Atlanta return

    Standing idle in the Arizona desert, a beloved historic airplane was prepped for its ultimate journey – one final flight back to where it all began. The recently discovered Ship 717, the last remaining Douglas DC-7B - last flown by Delta more than 50 years ago - drew the eye of the Delta Flight Museum as staffers worked with the plane's owner to return the plane to its Atlanta roots.

    During their heyday, Delta's fleet of 10 DC-7Bs brought luxury to the skies, even including a lounge in the rear of the cabin. With more power and range than its DC-7 counterpart, the DC-7B was outfitted with four Wright Duplex Cyclone R-3350 engines, developed shortly before World War II before being improved and widely adopted in commercial flying. In 1968, as the aviation industry increasingly turned to newer jet engines as the preferred airplane power source, Delta said farewell to our last Douglas DC-7 type aircraft and piston-engine propeller planes – including the DC-6 and Convair 440 series.

    In quiet Coolidge, Ariz., where summer temperatures near 110 degrees, mechanics spent days and nights making repairs, running tests, making more repairs, replacing multiple engines and testing all four engines again – all with the goal of making this DC-7B ready to take to the skies for the first time in 11 years. The trip to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, which included an overnight stop in Midland, Texas, was a flown at 9,500 feet in the now-depressurized aircraft for a combined 6.5 hours in the air.

    "Saying goodbye to this beautiful airplane is truly a bittersweet moment for me," said Woody Grantham, the longtime owner of this DC-7B and the founder of International Air Response. "Even as we fly on some of the latest and greatest new airplanes of today, I think it's so important that we never lose our touch with history, and I can't express how happy it makes me to see the DC-7B going home to be celebrated and immortalized at the Delta Flight Museum."

    Touching down in Atlanta at shortly after 5 p.m. EST Sunday and soon to be heading to Delta's TechOps facility, the final chapter of this DC-7B's story has yet to be written. Keep an eye on Delta News Hub to see what's next.​

    Standing idle in the Arizona desert, a beloved historic airplane was prepped for its ultimate journey – one final flight back to where it all began. The recently discovered Ship 717, the last remaining Douglas DC-7B - last flown by Delta more than 50 years ago - drew the eye of the Delta Flight Museum as staffers worked with the plane's owner to return the plane to its Atlanta roots.

    During their heyday, Delta's fleet of 10 DC-7Bs brought luxury to the skies, even including a lounge in the rear of the cabin. With more power and range than its DC-7 counterpart, the DC-7B was outfitted with four Wright Duplex Cyclone R-3350 engines, developed shortly before World War II before being improved and widely adopted in commercial flying. In 1968, as the aviation industry increasingly turned to newer jet engines as the preferred airplane power source, Delta said farewell to our last Douglas DC-7 type aircraft and piston-engine propeller planes – including the DC-6 and Convair 440 series.

    In quiet Coolidge, Ariz., where summer temperatures near 110 degrees, mechanics spent days and nights making repairs, running tests, making more repairs, replacing multiple engines and testing all four engines again – all with the goal of making this DC-7B ready to take to the skies for the first time in 11 years. The trip to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, which included an overnight stop in Midland, Texas, was a flown at 9,500 feet in the now-depressurized aircraft for a combined 6.5 hours in the air.

    "Saying goodbye to this beautiful airplane is truly a bittersweet moment for me," said Woody Grantham, the longtime owner of this DC-7B and the founder of International Air Response. "Even as we fly on some of the latest and greatest new airplanes of today, I think it's so important that we never lose our touch with history, and I can't express how happy it makes me to see the DC-7B going home to be celebrated and immortalized at the Delta Flight Museum."


    A Capital Fixer-Upper

    The Fairchilds’ front yard may have looked gorgeous, but Washington, D.C., wasn’t terribly pretty. A nation’s capital is symbolic of its stability and aspirations—a notion that Teddy Roosevelt supported when he urged Congress to transform the raw land around the Washington Monument into a park with fields, paths for walking and bicycling, and a separate road for automobiles to pass at greater speed. This area would come to be called the speedway, and many thought the flowering cherry trees could lend the Tidal Basin an elegant visage.

    In late March 1908 Fairchild gave a series of lectures in the D.C. area. He described his travels and recalled his first view of the sakura in Japan. He ended each lecture by displaying a photograph of the unsightly speedway near the Washington Monument. What an excellent place, he mused, to plant cherry blossom trees. Shortly after, in the Washington Star, Fairchild’s thought was given front‑page treatment. If the trees were planted soon around the Tidal Basin’s speedway, they could bloom the following spring and not long after, the newspaper reported, “Washington would one day be famous for its flowering cherry trees.”

    Tense Relations

    In the mid 1900s, discrimination against Japanese immigrants to the United States was hurting diplomatic relations between Japan and the U.S.A. Japanese immigrants had moved to the Pacific Northwest and were finding work on farms and railroads and in mining operations and canneries as they found success, they purchased land and started businesses. Spurred on by prejudice and fear, nativist groups organized campaigns that sensationalized Japanese-Americans as dangerous and incapable of becoming “true” citizens. Nativists lobbied for legislation to restrict immigration and to isolate Japanese populations. In 1906 San Francisco segregated Japanese and Chinese children into separate schools, a move that outraged Japan. In an attempt to save the friendship, the U.S.A. and Japan entered into what was known as the Gentlemen’s Agreement in 1907-08. Under its terms, Japan promised to limit the number of immigrants to the States, and the U.S. government would persuade San Francisco to desegregate its schools. It was this fraught relationship that William Howard Taft inherited when he became president in 1909. To try to mend it, he turned to the beauty of the cherry trees.

    In 1909 the idea of bringing cherry trees to D.C. was gaining traction, and America’s new first lady, Helen Taft, was an advocate. While Mrs. Taft marveled over their beauty, her husband, President William Howard Taft, saw a diplomatic tool to build up international relations with Japan, a nation he had visited in 1905 as secretary of war.

    Now motivated to smooth over relations, Taft quickly realized that the cherry trees could be the perfect way to quell past antagonisms. To Japan, it was an opportunity to show off a beautiful piece of itself in America’s capital. Japanese officials also enjoyed the tacit admission that despite America’s larger size, population, and economy, the countries were, in a way, equals. So when the then mayor of Tokyo, Yukio Ozaki, was tasked with finding the 300 finest cherry blossom trees in the city to be uprooted and shipped to America, it became his top priority.

    Fairchild brokered the initial deal, but the plan for 300 trees ballooned into 2,000. Tokyo’s mayor selected so many trees that the steamer sailing across the Pacific was overflowing. To make room, the tree roots were cut.


    Teen Titans: Origin and Background

    Although many point to The Brave and the Bold #54 (July 1964) as the team’s debut, that’s only partly true. The trio of Robin, Kid Flash, and Aqualad seen there are joined by Wonder Girl in issue #60 (July 1965), and there they adopt the actual team name, “The Teen Titans.” For all intents and purposes, then, we can consider these four as the founding members of the original Titans. Writer Bob Haney was responsible for uniting the young heroes and shepherding them through many exploits after a third (or second official) outing in Showcase #59 (December 1965), they began appearing in their own series in February 1966. A few breaks interrupted their run until they finally disbanded in February 1978 with Teen Titans #53.

    As revived by the powerhouse team of writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Perez in DC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980), the next incarnation of the Titans enjoyed a great deal of success and lasted through a title change to Tales of the Teen Titans and some membership turnover as Robin became Nightwing and Jericho took the place of Kid Flash, among other alterations. During this time, the team –which also included Cyborg, Starfire, Raven, and Changeling – participated in an award-winning story arc titled “The Judas Contract.” (Head here for our take on five ways Teen Titans: The Judas Contract changed DC Comics.) After 1984, drastic shifts in the title’s creators and the cast of characters attracted controversy and declining interest. Nevertheless, the Titans soldiered on through the beginning of DC’s multiple multiverse reboots. There was even a historic meeting of universes as Marvel and DC collided with Marvel and DC Present The Uncanny X-Men and the New Teen Titans (1982).

    In the ’90s, a “youthified” Ray (Atom) Palmer led a new team of Teen Titans that included Prysm, Risk, Joto, Argent, Arsenal, and a host of others. This team operated in the aftermath of “Zero Hour,” while another group assembled from past members also turned up without the “Teen” modifier. The 2000s also introduced yet another team with a replacement Robin (Tim Drake, not Dick Grayson), Wonder Girl (Cassie Sandsmark and not Donna Troy), and Kid Flash (Bart Allen and not Wally West). They were joined by a Superboy clone named Kon-El, but as the 2010s arrived, the confusion of constant DC universe rebooting led to still more permutations of the team, at times erasing the existence of past configurations and rewriting the history of the Titans entirely. In order to calm fan complaints, that history was restored in the “Titans Hunt” miniseries, and during the DC Rebirth initiative two new Titans teams were launched, with two each of the original four members joining colleagues from other past incarnations. Förvirrad än? Just imagine trying to summarize all of this!


    Titta på videon: DC Spotlight: Shazam! Say the Magic Word (Januari 2022).